Nonviolent Action Method #149: Quasi-Legal Evasions and Delays

Elijah Harper (image credit:

In 1987, Canada attempted to approve a new constitution, one that would give renewed rights and recognitions to Quebec but which failed to even make mention of the presence or rights of the First Nations. First Nation representatives in Manitoba contacted one of their representatives, Elijah Harper, who agreed to help. Each time a motion to vote on the new Constitution came up in the Manitoba Legislature, Harper motioned “No,” delaying the vote until past the deadline.

(You can read more about the different methods of nonviolent protest in Gene Sharp’s book The Politics of Nonviolent Action. Access CSA’s catalogue of Sharp’s methods here, or download the full list of 198 methods here.)

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Nonviolent Action Method #7: Slogans, Caricatures, and Symbols

From Gene Sharp

“We are the 99%” was the rallying cry of the Occupy Wall Street movement—referring to the vast majority of Americans who are struggling to pay their mortgages, facing debilitating student loan debt, and living without health insurance…while the 1% grows ever wealthier.

Nonviolent Action Method #18: Displays of Flags and Symbols

From Gene Sharp

Displays of Flags and Symbols
This technique showcases the flag or colors of a national, religious, social or political group, in a form of nonviolent protest that draws on the existence of deep emotions or from the intention to stir them.